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Historically, the few known fossil species (which date back to the Upper Cambrian) were “dumped” into the single order Palaeopantopoda, and the living forms into the order Pantopoda. These animals suspension fed by orienting with the oral side upward and using the open ambulacral grooves in the arms or brachioles for transporting food to the mouth. Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths II.

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American Fisheries Society Special Publication 31: 545 pp. She is particularly interested in the study of adaptive traits, and their potential role in linking genetic markers for species identification with genes of biological significance in maintaining species boundaries. For example, the strontium sulfate skeletons of acantharians have been used by scientists to measure amounts of natural or an- thropogenic radioactivity in marine environments.

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On land, modern genera of many gymnosperms and advanced angiosperms ap- peared, and birds began their dramatic radiation. Following the ingestion of tiny food particles or the pre- liminary extracellular digestion of larger food, the in- testinal phagocytic cells extend processes into the gut lumen, nearly occluding the digestive cavity. We will be adding to these throughout the unit as homework. Phylogeny, evolution, and biogeography of the ma- rine isopod subfamily Idoteinae (Crustacea: Isopoda: Idoteidae).

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Most harpacticoids are benthic, and those that have adapted to a planktonic lifestyle show modified body shapes. Cilia drive the food to the mouth, where it is ingested. Distally, the exosaccal space lies between the outer body wall and a thick layer of atrial dilator mus- cles. Show a picture of invertebrates from the "Tree of Life" book. The most ex- treme case of this mutualism is that of the cloak anemones (e.g., Adamsia, Stylobates), which wrap them- selves around the hermit crab’s gastropod shell and grow as the crab does (Figure 8.29).

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Each chelicera has two segments; the basal seg- ment is short and conical and the distal segment is a hard, curved fang, usually bearing a pore from the duct of the poison gland (Figures 19.5J,K, 19.16A). PROTEIN - A study of life starts with chemistry. Most spiders are solitary, but a few live and feed communally (Figure 19.15A). It would appear that the cephalopod vascular lining is quite permeable and may not serve as a selective barrier as in the vertebrates, which could by some definitions make the cephalopod vascular system more “open” than “closed” [ 14, 17 – 19 ].

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In many terrestrial arthropods (including primitive in- sects) an eversible coxal sac (not to be confused with the coxal glands of arachnids) projects from the body wall near the base of each leg. We cannot unambiguously resolve the trichotomy leading to these three taxa, but each line is defined by synapomorphies as follows: prohaptor (2); opisthaptor (3) (Monogenea); ventral sucker or acetabulum in most (4) (Trematoda); tegumental microtriches (5); scolex (6); loss of digestive tract (7); and strobilation of the body (8) (Cestoda). (B) A traditional (orthodox) evolutionary tree depicting gener- al ideas about the relationships among the orders of Turbellaria and the parasitic classes.

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Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp 31–38. We may view the circu- lar and longitudinal muscles as acting antagonistical- ly against a functionally single internal space whose volume remains constant (as does the volume of the whole body). Indirect Development Consider first a life cycle with planktotrophic larvae (Figure 4.11A). On the morphology of the larva of Priapulus. Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php.

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Download In the Beginning Was the Worm: Finding the Secrets of Life in a Tiny Hermaphrodite PDF

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Growth and moulting in nematodes: Moulting and devel- opment of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The diversity of forms of mitosis in protozoa: a com- parative review. The main longitudinal nerve cords arise from the ventral lobes of the cerebral gan- glion and pass posteriorly; they attach to each other at various points by branched transverse connectives and terminally by an anal commissure. Arthropoda of the Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand. 6.

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Invertebrates share four common traits: They do not have a backbone. ORDER HOPLONEMERTEA: Proboscis armed; trunk lacks a posterior sucker; gut more or less straight but nearly al- ways with numerous lateral diverticula; cerebral organs and ocelli usually present. Longer limbs increase the speed of a running gait, and limbs long in length and stride are typical features of the fastest-running centipedes and symphylans. Most parabasilids, however, take in particu- late matter by phagocytosis.

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Read Spiders of New Zealand: Annotated Family Key and Species List PDF, azw (Kindle), ePub

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The retention of a persistent blastocoel may be nothing more than a paedomorphic characteristic derived convergently in numerous groups. The greater size of the coelomocytes and their numerous branches bearing many cytoplasmic swellings increase cellular surface area and metabolic efficiency in Ascaris. SUBORDER ANTHOMEDUSAE (= GYMNOBLASTEA OR ATHECATA): Polyps solitary or colonial; hydranths and gonozooids lack exoskeleton; gonozooids produce free or sessile medusae; some groups produce gametes in transient sporosacs; free medusae tall and bell- shaped, without statocysts, with or without ocelli; medusae form gametes on subumbrella or manubrium. (e.g., Bougainvilla, Calycopsis, Eleutheria, Eudendrium, Hydra, Hydractinia, Hydrocoryne, Janaria, Lar, Pennaria, Polyorchis, Sarsia, Staurocladia, Stylactis, Tubularia) Two anthomedusan families were formerly consid- ered separate orders of hydrocorals, the Milleporidae (one extant genus, Millepora) and the Stylasteridae.

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